3 thoughts on “The HPA Axis, The Exaggerated Startle Response, and Epigenetic Changes – How Depression Changes Your Brain

  • October 13, 2017 at 5:44 pm

    Do you have full citation for the articles you cited?

    • October 17, 2017 at 6:45 pm

      Hi Finn,

      Here are the full citations you requested:

      Gold, P., Chrousos, G. (1999).The endocrinology of melancholic and atypical depression: relation to neurocircuitry and somatic consequences. Proceedings of the Association of American Physicians. 1999; 111:22–34.

      Hasler, G., Bonwetsch. R., Giovacchini, G. (2017). 5-HT1A receptor binding in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with and without major depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2017; 62:1258–1264.

      Heim, C., Newport, D., Mletzko T. (2008). The link between childhood trauma and depression: insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2008; 33:693–710.

      Holsboer, F., Ising, M. (2012). Central CRH system in depression and anxiety – evidence from clinical studies with CRH1 receptor antagonists. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012; 583:350–357.

      Maripuu, M. et. al, (2016). “Depression, obesity common among bipolar patients with exhausted stress system.” ScienceDaily, 19 January 2016

      Mizoguchi, K., Ishige, A., Aburada, M. (2013). Chronic stress attenuates glucocorticoid negative feedback: involvement of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2013; 119:887–897.
      Nemeroff C. (2014). The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) hypothesis of depression: new findings and new directions. Mol Psychiatry. 2014; 1:336–342.

      Raadsheer, F., Hoogendijk, W., Stam, F. (2014). Increased numbers of corticotropin-releasing hormone expressing neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of depressed patients. Neuroendocrinology. 2014; 60:436–444.

  • October 22, 2017 at 6:47 pm

    I can’t imagine even imagining the anything but compromrised health would go hand and hand with poor health. How would one suffering from the diagnosis’ mentioned in the article not suffer from poor health?… , and wouldn’t it be most impossible to even care when on many days you’re too paralyzed to even brush your teeth.


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