While a new body of research has focused on the use of psychedelic drugs such as magic mushrooms, LSD and mescaline (a substance derived from peyote cactus), to improve mood, reduce anxiety, and with obsessive compulsive disorder and eating disorders, according to University of Alabama Assoc. Prof. Peter Hendricks, they may also decrease the likelihood of antisocial criminal behavior. Working with UBC Okanagan’s Associate Professor of Psychology Zach Walsh, Hendricks used data obtained by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which is administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, to explore the connection between the use of classic psychedelic substances and criminal behavior among more than 480,000 American adult respondents from the past 13 years. What Hendricks and Walsh found is quite compelling: respondents who have used psychedelic drugs had 27 per cent decreased odds of larceny or theft, and 22 per cent decreased odds of arrest for a violent crime in the past year. At the same time, lifetime use of other illicit substances was generally associated with increased odds of criminal behavior (Hendricks et al., 2017). “These findings add to a growing body of research suggesting that use of classic psychedelics may have positive effects for reducing antisocial behavior” (Walsh, 2017). While the development of innovative and effective interventions to prevent criminal behavior is an obvious priority, for Hendricks and Walsh, the use of psilocybin and related compounds could revolutionize the mental health field. “Our findings suggest the protective effects of classic psychedelic use are attributable to genuine reductions in antisocial behavior rather than reflecting improved evasion of arrest. Simply put, the positive effects associated with classic psychedelic use appear to be reliable” (Hendricks, 2017). Walsh points out that research on the benefits of psychedelic drugs started decades ago, primarily to treat mental illness, yet was stopped due to the reclassification of the drugs to controlled substances in the mid-1970s. With the resurgence of interest in psychedelic medicine, notes Walsh, more research is needed to figure out what factors underlie these effects. But, he says, “the experiences of unity, positivity and transcendence that characterize the psychedelic experience may have lasting benefits that translate into real-world consequences” (Walsh, 2017).
Facing our failures and shortcomings is not easy and the tendency to avoid them, or engage in something else to take our mind off things is universal – unethical behavior, alcohol abuse and compensatory consumption are all examples of this.
“The current design of prison systems don’t work. Overly punitive approaches used on violent, angry criminals only provide a breeding ground for more anger and more violence,” said criminal justice expert Joel Dvoskin, PhD, of the University of Arizona.
It has been said that positive emotions expand our consciousness in ways that help us solve problems. For Barbara Frederickson, the author of Positivity: Top-Notch Research Reveals the Upward Spiral That Will Change Your Life, positive emotions build upon one another in ways that extend beyond the present moment.
While we may consider the reasons we go into debt – from falling prey to strategic advertising that encourages us to buy now and pay later, and thinking we are in a better position to pay our bills than we are, to being taken advantage of by overzealous lenders, or failing to exert financial self-control – the result is the same: We are mired in debt. The question is: Just how much does this affect our mental health?
While it is not hard to imagine that higher intelligence predicts higher test scores and better grades – it seems that these results affect – and are affected by – our emotions.
The ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus advised, “Do not spoil what you have by desiring what you have not; remember that what you now have was once among the things you only hoped for.” Yet. For some, the pursuit of happiness can be a never ending quest. The problem is what is known as hedonic adaptation.