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Depression After Traumatic Events: Recognition and Response

Disaster and trauma studies often focus on identifying the incidence of PTSD as the sequel to traumatic events.

Early interventions with those impacted by a traumatic event increasingly utilize psycho-education to clarify and normalize common post-traumatic stress reactions and coping strategies.

While mentioned as a possible response, the high incidence of depression after trauma is less delineated and often goes unrecognized by those suffering.

Depression Occurs after Trauma:

  • Rand corporation study reports that nearly 20 percent of military service members who have returned from Iraq and Afghanistan – 300,000 in all – report symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or major depression.
  • In the first long-term study of the health impacts of the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on September 11, 2001, findings indicate that seven percent of police officers were diagnosed with depression, nine percent with PTSD and eight percent with panic disorder. Twenty eight percent of other rescue and recovery workers had symptoms of depression.
  • survey of survivors from the Oklahoma City bombing showed that 23% had depression after the bombing.
  • Depression affects approximately 15 percent to 25 percent of cancer patients.
  • After a myocardial infarction, the incidence of major depression is from 15 percent to 20 percent, and an additional 27 percent of patients develop minor depression.
  • While there is few data on the post-illness stage of  COVID-19, there is evidence of depression, anxiety, fatigue, and post-traumatic stress disorder in the post-illness stage of previous coronavirus epidemics

Both major depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) occur frequently following traumatic exposure, both as separate disorders and concurrently.

Depression is the most common disorder suffered in conjunction with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

Depression is nearly three to five times more likely in those with PTSD than those without PTSD.

Overlap of PTSD and Depression

  • One possible reason for the tendency to speak more about PTSD than depression is that the overlap of symptoms has made many wonder if they actually reflect the same trauma vulnerability and response.
  • While there are different views, most acknowledge them as separate disorders, but register that depression and PTSD do increase susceptibility of the other.
  • Persistence of PTSD symptoms is a risk factor for depression; and the presence of comorbid depression seems to predict chronicity of PTSD.
  • A recent study by Nixon and Nearmy underscored the importance of differential diagnosis and treatment of depression in the aftermath of trauma to avoid the dropout rate from PTSD treatments not suited to those suffering from depression.

Why Depression after Trauma?

From a psychological perspective, depression is understandable after trauma. Not all loss is traumatic- but all trauma involves loss.

In the face of unthinkable terrorist attack, natural disaster, loss of a child, war, heart attack or life threatening illness, we face loss on many levels. We lose people, resources, connection, safety and the world as we knew it. We come face to face with death and grieve for our lost sense of control and of life.

The Unfolding of Depression After Trauma

While the course of depression after trauma is complicated and varied, some studies find that depression, much like PTSD peaks in the acute aftermath of traumatic events and abates after about four months.

Some have found that that whereas PTSD reduces in long-term follow-up, there is an increase in depression as time goes on. This is often consistent with facing a different reality and an awareness of loss of actual and interpersonal resources.

Symptoms of Depression after Trauma

A diagnosis of depression is usually characterized by five or more of the following symptoms including either a persistent sad mood or loss of interest in life’s pleasures manifested for a two-week period. Any persistence of these symptoms that causes marked functional impairment or suicidal thinking, however, is cause for concern:

  • A persistent sad mood 
  • Loss of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyed 
  • Significant change in appetite or body weight 
  • Difficulty sleeping or oversleeping 
  • Physical slowing or agitation 
  • Loss of energy 
  • Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt 
  • Difficulty thinking or concentrating 
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide 

It is worth noting that while these are the established symptoms for depression, we have found that men often suffer from depression well hidden behind anger, irritability, medical symptoms and alcohol. It does not mean they are suffering less; it just makes depression more dangerous for them

Depression after trauma is often heightened by the hyper-arousal that makes concentration and sleep difficult and adds to feelings of depletion.

Persistent pain from injury or medical treatment, intrusive thoughts of traumatic events or grief in the face of unanticipated traumatic loss can often invite a fear of things never getting better, of no hope for the future.

Self-blame and shame about not “pulling it together,” overt sadness, fear of being pitied or of losing respect often keep people isolated with depression and unable to reach for the help they need.

Responding to Depression after Trauma

Depression is nothing you chose. 

Depression is not your fault. 

Depression does not equate to doing something wrong or failing to do something right. 

Depression is about suffering. 

Depression can be treated. 

If you have been through a traumatic event or have faced the trauma associated with a life threatening illness and symptoms of depression persist, there is no reason to wait. There is considerable benefit in seeking professional help.

  • There is proven value in many individual and group therapy treatments for depression.
  • Given the research findings of neurochemical changes implicated in the symptoms of depression, evaluation for medication may be warranted and helpful.
  • The combination of therapy and medication is extremely valuable for many.

Self-care and Re-investment in Life 

  • Self-Care and re-investment are difficult, but crucial in the recovery from depression. Three antidotes of despair observed by international humanitarian workers in people who have lost all they love to unthinkable circumstances included: Work, Connection and Altruism

 Work –The sense of value one gets from work is basic to a sense of mastery, value and worth. If you are able to do some aspect of your work – do it. It will help you remember who you still are.

 Connection-Don’t go it alone. Connection with others buffers loneliness and reduces the isolation that can increase the rumination and negative perspective of depression. Whether in person or online reach out to another- for their sake if not yours, even if it is hard, if only to realize you would urge a friend who was struggling to call you.

Altruism-Being needed is a gift in face of the depression. In a way that is often unexpectedly challenging, physically demanding and emotionally uplifting, a plan to help and give to others is often transformative.

“Sometimes You Have to Go Through Darkness to Get to the Light.”

( Goodvibes.com)

 

 

 

Depression After Traumatic Events: Recognition and Response


Suzanne Phillips, Psy.D., ABPP

Suzanne B. Phillips, Psy.D., ABPP is a licensed psychologist. She is Adjunct Professor of Clinical Psychology in the Doctoral Program of Long Island University and on the faculty of the Post-Doctoral Programs of the Derner Institute of Adelphi University. Suzanne Phillips, PsyD and Dianne Kane are the authors of Healing Together: A Couple's Guide to Coping with Trauma and Post-Traumatic Stress. Learn more about their work at couplesaftertrauma.com . Visit Suzanne's Facebook Page HERE.


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APA Reference
Phillips, S. (2020). Depression After Traumatic Events: Recognition and Response. Psych Central. Retrieved on July 8, 2020, from https://blogs.psychcentral.com/healing-together/2020/05/depression-after-traumatic-events-recognition-and-response/

 

Last updated: 30 May 2020
Statement of review: Psych Central does not review the content that appears in our blog network (blogs.psychcentral.com) prior to publication. All opinions expressed herein are exclusively those of the author alone, and do not reflect the views of the editorial staff or management of Psych Central. Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.