It’s all in the timing: A psychologist measures how musicians communicate emotion

Dan Levitin designed a psychology experiment using a special player piano to analyze and reproduce a performance without expressive elements, and versions in between. When participants ranked their preference of versions it was found they matched the most expressive, in which a musician uses variations in timing, loudness and softness to convey emotion. In the second brief video, part 2, Levitin discusses implications for synthesized music. Hat tip: Open Culture.