Peakaboo — Eye See You!
Every baby loves the game Peak-a-boo…(and some adults, too!:) an early game of early, morning trust and early, morning (new) relationship building…between mother and child, etc. The game/fun never gets old! Whether you’re hiding behind a pair of binoculars, a telescope or computer screen…an “early”/encrypted form of communication, language, laughter and learning. Fun! (who…m–doesn’t enjoy some…fun! No matter what your age!:)
Peak-a-boo–the (young) game of innocence and learning…the game between teacher and student…
Is it A or B or an Enigma?! Mystery…s…olved:
An experimenter hides an attractive toy under box “A” within the baby’s reach. The baby searches for the toy, looks under box “A”, and finds the toy. This activity is usually repeated several times (always with the researcher hiding the toy under box “A”). Then, in the critical trial, the experimenter moves the toy under box “B”, also within easy reach of the baby. Babies of 10 months or younger typically make the perseverance error, meaning they look under box “A” even though they saw the researcher move the toy under box “B”, and box “B” is just as easy to reach. This demonstrates a lack of, or incomplete, schema of object permanence. Children of 12 months or older typically do not make this error.
Traditionally, this phenomenon has been explained as the child seeing an image and remembering where it was, rather than where it is. Other accounts deal with the development of planning, reaching, and deciding things. There are also behaviorist accounts that explain the behavior in terms of reinforcement. This account argues that the repeated trials with hiding the toy in box “A” is reinforcing that specific behavior, so that the child still reaches for box “A” because the action has been reinforced before. However, this account does not explain the shift in behavior that occurs around 12 months.
Smith and Thelen used a dynamic systems approach to the A-not-B task. They found that various components of the activity (strength of memory trace, salience of targets, waiting time, stance) combine in the “B”-trial (where the object is hidden in the “B” location rather than “A”) so the child either correctly or incorrectly searches for the toy. They experimentally manipulated the task to see if they could make 10-month-old babies (who typically make the perseverative error of searching at “A”) perform like 12-month-old babies (who typically search correctly). Changing the stance of the baby (sitting or standing) was one manipulation they found could make the 10-month-old search correctly. Just standing instead of sitting for the “B”-trial made the prior experience of searching in location “A” less salient to the child, who then searched correctly. The researchers concluded that the length of wait time was one of the crucial elements of the task that is influenced by age. Source: Wikipedia
Peak-a-boo…”i see you” can be translated–“i understand You” cause 1. i relate to You:) 2. i’m learning to…understand better. 3. Nobody knows or understands anyone or anything completely without specifics or details. 4. Learning to trust and discern what i understand/see/appreciate about the object/person/animal or its pattern permanence takes time.
To gather specifics (details and/or facts) takes effort, takes time, takes work, takes commitment! All necessary to Wellness and Care-giving and Partnerships/relationships!
To gaze at a distance you need binoculars..a “looking glass”…everything looks mysterious or enigmatic from a distance…including the universe. From a distance, people look like ants. Upon closer examination, you see differently! What do you see??
You see people, you see faces, you see happy, you see sad, you see eyes, you see retina…
You really see, you really understand and to really understand, you really “know!”:)
“Ways of Seeing”
This is what my eyes have seen (read) recently:
“The human eye contains a retina-a membrane with approximately 120 million cells called photoreceptors, which absorb light rays and convert them into electric signals. Your brain interprets these signals as images. Evolutionists have contended that where the retina is placed in the eyes of vertebrates, proves that they (eye) had no designer.
According to evolutionary biologist Kenneth Miller, “this arrangement scatters the light, making our vision less detailed than it might be. One scientist even described it as a “functionally stupid upside-down orientation.”
“However, further research reveals that the photoreceptors of the inverted retina are ideally placed next to the pigment epithelium-cell layer that provides oxygen and nutrients vital to keen sight.” Wrote Biologist Jerry Bergman and Ophthalmologist Joseph Calkins: “If the pigment epithelium tissue were placed in front of the retina, sight would be seriously comprised.”
Professor Ronald Kroger, of the University of Lund, Sweden: “Between the lens of the eye and the photoreceptors, there must be a certain distance to get a sharp image. Having this space filled with nerve cells means an important saving of space for the vertebrates.” (saving of space looks like “organization” to me!) Self-control (containing/restraining)/Organization context please see: Spend Less & Read More
“SEE” this important point: “With the nerve cells of the retina tightly packed and close to the photoreceptors, analysis of visual information is fast and reliable.“~The Inverted Retina-Was It Designed?
Need to Wipe Off your lens?! or OPEN your Eyes:)
“Many atheists view science through the lens of materialism-a philosophy that assumes purely material causes for the origin of life.”
“We have a prior commitment…to materialism,” wrote Richard C. Lewontin…”That materialism is absolute, for we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the door.”
“Religious people too may have preconceptions that distort their attitude toward science. Some Creationists cling to the erroneous notion that God formed the world in 6 literal days a few thousand years ago. Having made that commitment, they try to force the evidence to fit their extremely literal interpretation of the Bible.”
“Many of the world’s religions have added to the confusion (of: is there a God/Designer?) by teaching things that contradict well-established scientific knowledge.” ~Which Approach is More Reasonable
For example, the word “day” in the Bible can refer to various periods of time…not just a literal 24 hour period.
Here’s an excerpt from Evolution for Dummies…saying that evolution occurred because the earth “gets loads of energy from the sun, and that energy is what powers the increase in complexity.”
“To be sure, energy is needed to turn disorder into order-for example, to assemble bricks, wood, and nails into a house. That energy, however, has to be carefully controlled and precisely directed because uncontrolled energy is more likely to speed up decay, just as the energy from the sun and the weather can hasten the deterioration of a building.”*
*DNA can be altered by mutations, which can be caused by such things as radiation and certain chemicals. But these do not lead to new species.” ~Is Evolution a Fact?
Have you heard of Massimo Tistarelli?? A professor and scientist at the University of Sassari in Italy. “He is an associate editor of 3 international science magazines and has coauthored more than a hundred scientific papers.”
I read this fascinating interview about him and his work…He designs robots. Here are some points from the interview that i liked…Hope You do 2:
From childhood he was interested in machines…would take his electric toys apart and reassemble them. His Dad was a telecommunications engineer and he would ask him endless questions about how radios and phones work. As a young man, he leaned toward atheism. He was taught life originated by evolution, and he accepted that as fact. He explored Buddhism, Hinduism, and Taoism.
His career as Scientist:
“I studied electronic engineering at the University of Genoa, and then I did doctoral research in robot design. I specialized in studying the human visual system and in devising ways to imitate it for the design of robots.”
Why did our visual system interest You?
“It is incredibly sophisticated, encompassing much more than the eyes–it even includes the means to interpret what we see. For example, consider what happens when you catch a ball. As you run to make the catch, the lens of your eye focuses an image of the ball onto your retina. That image will move across your retina in a way that depends on the movement of both the ball and your eye. Normally, of course, you keep your eye fixed on the ball. Its image then becomes stationary on your retina while the background “moves.”
“At the same time, your visual system calculates the speed of the ball and its trajectory. Amazingly, the calculations start right there in the retina as your eye estimates the movement of the ball in relation to its background. Your optic nerve then transmits the impulses formed by the retina to your brain, which further analyzes the information and directs you to intercept the ball. The whole process is breathtaking in its complexity.”
“I thought about my work with robots. I could never design a robot capable of catching a ball as we can. A robot can be programmed to catch a ball, but only in precisely controlled conditions. It cannot do so in circumstances for which it has not been programmed. Our ability to learn is vastly superior to that of a machine–and mere machines have makers.”
“I assumed that evolution was well supported by the fossil record. But it is not. Indeed, the more I examined evolution, the more I became convinced that the theory is more bluster than fact.”
He recommends the book: “Life–How Did it Get Here? By Evolution or by Creation?”…”the careful research that had gone into this work impressed me.”
“Science has strengthened my faith (in a Designer/Creator/God)…for example, consider how we recognize faces. A baby can do this within hours after birth. You and I can recognize someone we know, even if he is in a crowd. We may even discern his emotional state. Yet, we may be completely unaware that this recognition involves the processing of a phenomenal amount of information at an incredible speed.”
“It dawned on me that I had accepted evolution without really questioning it.” He started researching the Bible…”was deeply interested in the many prophecies, or predictions, in the Bible. My study of those convinced me that the Bible really is from God.” ~Professor and Scientist Massimo Tistarelli
Thinking about our beautiful planet and all beautiful-breathing-fragile-life that inhabits it (including YOU:)…when we closely examine/look/see/discern…are we:
Winifred, J. (2013). Peakaboo — Eye See You!. Psych Central. Retrieved on November 25, 2015, from http://blogs.psychcentral.com/wellness/2013/01/peakaboo-eye-see-you/