Archives for Diagnosis
Disaster and trauma studies often focus on identifying the incidence of PTSD as the sequel to traumatic events. Early interventions with those affected after a disaster or traumatic event increasingly utilize psycho-education to clarify and normalize common post-traumatic stress reactions and coping strategies. While mentioned as a possible response, the high incidence of depression after trauma is less delineated and often goes unrecognized by those suffering. Depression Occurs after Trauma: A Rand corporation study reports that nearly 20 percent of military service members who have returned from Iraq and Afghanistan - 300,000 in all - report symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or major depression. In the first long-term study of the health impacts of the World Trade Center (WTC) collapse on September 11, 2001, findings indicate that seven percent of police officers were diagnosed with depression, nine percent with PTSD and eight percent with panic disorder. Twenty eight percent of other rescue and recovery workers had symptoms of depression. A survey of survivors from the Oklahoma City bombing showed that 23% had depression after the bombing. Depression affects approximately 15 percent to 25 percent of cancer patients. After a myocardial infarction, the incidence of major depression is from 15 percent to 20 percent, and an additional 27 percent of patients develop minor depression. Both major depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) occur frequently following traumatic exposure, both as separate disorders and concurrently. Depression is the most common disorder suffered in conjunction with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Depression is nearly three to five times more likely in those with PTSD than those without PTSD.
Almost everyone has some experience with hope: We hope for the best. We hang on to hope. We despair when we lose hope. It would seem that hope, which is broadly defined as an emotional state that promotes the belief in a positive outcome, is in inherent in human nature. Reflections of the importance of hope are found in early mythology, religion, philosophy and literature. Pandora, although forbidden, opened the box given to her by Zeus, and in a moment, all the curses were released into the world and all the blessing escaped and were lost- except one: hope. “To have faith is to be sure of the things we hope for, to be certain of the things we cannot see.” ― The King James Version of the Bible “Hope is a waking dream.” –Aristotle “Where there is no hope, it is incumbent on us to invent it.” -Albert Camus "Hope is that thing with feathers that perches in the soul and sings the tune without the words and never stops -- at all." -Emily Dickinson Clearly we need hope, but even as we embrace it we often wonder – Does hope really make a difference? Is it myth, fiction, collective denial? There is actually increasing scientific evidence that hope changes us psychologically and physiologically - that it makes a difference.